Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel Welded and Seamless Pipe
Stainless steel pipe and carbon steel pipe are the most common type of standard pipe used today. They are part of tubular goods, which are manufactured to different specifications and standards. Pipes are sold by “nominal pipe size” in sizes from 1/8″ to 72″. The two most common types of pipes are welded pipe and seamless pipe. Both are available in carbon steel and stainless steel. Welded pipe is also called ERW (Electric Resistance Welded) pipe. Most common specification for welded carbon steel pipe is A53. Seamless pipe is made by a process that requires no welding. Most common specification for seamless carbon steel pipe is A106B. Stainless Steel pipe is made to spec A312. Stainless steel pipe is also available in both seamless and welded configuration. Most common stainless material is 316 and 304.
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Types of Pipes and Tubular Goods
How Pipe is Measured?
Pipe is generally identified by “Nominal Pipe Size” (NPS), with the wall thickness defined by “Schedule” (SCH). NPS is dimensionless designator and is an indication of a size but not an actual size. This is confusing for many people new to the piping industry. NPS 1/8 through NPS 12 has an outside diameter that is defined by the ansi pipe sizes. Generally speaking, a schedule 40 pipe dimension for up to 12 NPS is roughly equal to the ID of the pipe. Pipe sizes 14 and above are less confusing as a 14 NPS is equal to 14″ OD (outer diameter).
Pipe Size Chart
ASME B 36.10 has more details of pipe sizes. The industry norm for pipe size also varies between different types of pipe. For a standard pipe, a 4.5″ OD pipe will be referred to as 4″ NPS however for line pipe and OCTG, it will be referred to as 4.5″ only. Wall thickness is also mentioned differently. For standard pipe, pipe schedule is used to designate wall thickness. However line pipe is almost always referred by wall thickness whereas OCTG is referred by weight per foot.
Weight of Pipe
Weight of pipe is measured in pounds per foot or kilograms per meter. One should remember that weight of pipe in the ansi pipe size chart is “theoretical” weight and not an actual weight. Actual weight will vary based on the tolerance of pipe size.
Formula to calculate weight of steel pipe is;
W = [
x WT] x 10.69
W = Weight per lineal foot
OD = Outer Diameter
WT = Wall Thickness
Steel pipe is grouped in two main categories;
- Welded Pipe
- Seamless Pipe
There are four main methods of producing metal pipe:
- Furnace Weld (FW). Also called Continuous Weld
- Electric Resistance Weld (ERW)
- Submerged Arc Weld (SAW), also DSAW
- Seamless (SMLS) method
Electric Resistance Weld Pipe (ERW)
ERW Pipe is produced in sizes from 1/8 to 24 in NPS. ERW welded pipe is produced from flat sheet metals. ERW pipe is first cold formed into a cylindrical shape and then welded longitudinally. both continuous welded and elctric resistance welded pipe are made by shaping rolls of coiled steel into cylindrical forms and welding along the longitudinal seams. Picture below shows the first step of forming strips into cylindrical shape and then fusing it together in 2nd step.
There are many ways for the electric current to be used for welding the rolled strip. This includes revolving copper disc, fixed alloy Cu contacts and induction coils. These methods raise the temperature of the steel edge to 2600 deg F for effective welding. The rolling process exerts so much pressure that it creates a metal welded seam on the outside and inside. These weld seams are then removed during the finishing process. The welded pipe is heat treated, inspected and hydro tested.
ERW pipe is available in following common specs;
ASTM A53, A135, A252, A500, A795, API 5L and API 5CT.
Most common spec for welded pipe is A53 and API 5L.
What is seamless definition? or seamless meaning? we get this question a lot. Seamless pipe is produced in sizes from 1/8 to 36″ nominal. Seamless pipe has no longitudinal seam or weld when compared to ERW pipe. In simple terms the seamless pipe is produced by piercing a solid round billet leaving behind a hollow seamless pipe. There are two main methods of producing seamless pipe;
- Hot Rotary Piercing
- Extrusion Process Method
In Extrusion Process, hot billets of metal are formed into seamless pipe by forcing the billets through extrusion dies and over a forming mandrel. See picture below;
Hot rotary piercing method is the most common process of producing seamless pipe. In this process hot billets are forced through rotating heavy rollers over a mandrel or piercing plug. The piercing plug creates the hole through the seamless cylindrical billets. Picture below illustrates the hot rotary process.
Seamless pipe goes through various finishing operations such as straightening, inspection, hydro testing and imaging. Seamless pipe is widely used in pressure piping, construction, petrochemical and oil refineries. Seamless pipe is available in the following specifications;
ASTM A53, A106, A252, A333, A335, A501, A523, A589, API 5L and API 5CT. Most common seamless pipe is A106B.
End finish of seam less pipe includes plain ends either beveled or square cut. Seamless carbon steel pipe is available in black, bare, galvanized or with epoxy coating.
Steel Pipe Lengths
Generally steel pipe is supplied in 21 ft lengths. It is also available in Single Random Length (SRL) which could be anywhere from 17 ft to 24 ft. Double Random Length (DRL) refers to pipes that is at least 37 ft long and up to 44 ft.
Steel Pipe End Finish
There are five common type of metal pipe end finishes;
- Threaded and Coupled
- Threaded without Coupling
- Plain End – Cut Square
- Beveled for Welding – 30 deg bevel
- Grooved End – Cut or rolled for mechanical coupling
Picture below shows different steel pipe end finishes;
Coupling for extra strong and double extra strong pipe are taper threaded and recessed for all sizes. Picture above shows straight tapped coupling and straight tapped coupling with recess.
Steel Pipe Identification and Marking
Steel pipe is available in different classification, grade, weight, schedule number etc. Hence it is important to identify steel pipe markings. Steel pipe is identified by paint stencil or stamped marking on the pipe itself or by a tag attached to it.
Pipe identification as per ASTM
Picture below shows marking requirements as per ASTM specifications
Pipe identification as per API
Picture below shows marking required as per API specification.
Metal Pipe Finishing Processes
Most common finish on the metal pipe is lacquer coating that prevents corrosion and protects the pipe from weather. This is also called Black Iron Pipe. Other than lacquer, there are four types of metal pipe finishes;
- Bare Metal
- Pickled only
- Pickled and Oiled
- Galvanized Pipe
Galvanizing involves using zinc coating as a sacrificial element to prevent corrosion. Zinc is usually applied by a hot dipping process where pipe is submerged in a molten bath of zinc solution. Standard weight of zinc is 1.8 oz per sq ft. Galvanized pipes provide good protection to the pipe inside and out.
Steel Pipe Coating and Lined Steel Pipe
Pipe’s corrosion resistance can also be enhanced with corrosion resistant pipe coating. Such coatings are usually long lasting compared to lacquer or galvanized finishes. There are three main types of Corrosion Protective Coating for Steel Pipe
Steel Pipe Material
Metal Pipes are available in following material grades;
- A106B/A53B/API 5L-X42/API 5L B
- Stainless Steel 304
- Stainless Steel 316
- Super Stainless A20
- Duplex Stainless D2205
- Nickel Alloy A200
- Nickel Alloy A400
- Nickel Alloy A600
Stainless Steel Pipe
Stainless steel is iron based alloy containing a minimum of 16% chromium. Nickel is another important alloying element in stainless steel pipe. Stainless Steel pipes are highly resistant to corrosive media and to oxidation at almost any temperature.
Stainless steel welded and seamless pipes are used for variety of reason such as to resist corrosion, preform at high temperature, for clean look and low maintenance cost. The most important aspect for stainless steel pipe is its inherent material characteristics that allows much thinner walls to be created such as sch 5, sch 10 without compromising the structural integrity of the pipe. The use of fusion welding to join pipe also eliminates the need for threading.
Type 304 stainless steel pipe is mostly used for general corrosive resistant application. it is used in chemical plants, refineries, paper mills and food industries. 304SS pipe has maximum carbon content of 0.08%. It is not recommended for use in the temperature range between 800 deg F and 1650 deg F due to carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries. Type 304L is the same as 304 except that it has a 0.035% maximum carbon content.
Type 316SS pipe is much more resistant to pitting than other chromium nickel alloys due to the addition of 2-3% molybdenum. It is useful in applications with acids, brines, sulphur water, sea water and with hologen salts. 316L stainless steel pipe, like 304L, has a max carbon content of 0.035%.
Welded Stainless Steel Pipe is made to specification ASTM A312 and A358. A312 is the most common spec for stainless steel pipe. Welded stainless pipe is made from 1/8″ to 24″ NPS.
Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe is made to specification ASTM A312 and A376. A312 is also the most common spec for seamless stainless steel pipe. Seamless stainless pipe is made from size 1/8 to 14″ nominal
Steel Pipe Country of Origin
Steel pipe is made by mills all around the world and traded in different countries. Some of the big names in the pipe industry are US Steel, ArcelorMittal, Nippon Steel, Nucor Corp, Hyundai Steel, ThyssenKrup, Vallourec, Hebei Iron and Steel Group, Posco, Jiangsu Shagang, Ulma Piping, Shultz USA and Webco etc.
Q&A Steel Pipe
Trupply sells a large variety of welded and seamless pipe. Based on our years of experience, the following are main questions or key points customers inquire about;
- Steel pipe is sold by nominal pipe size and schedule. It is important to mention both
- A106 B is the most common seamless pipe specification. Most customers just know they want A106B pipe and it simply implies they want carbon steel seamless pipe as per A106B. A106 is NOT a specification for stainless steel pipe
- Pipe sizes 10 inch and above do NOT correlate directly with schedule number. Such as SCH 40 and SCH 80 does NOT always mean Standard and Extra Heavy respectively. Refer to pipe chart to make sure you are ordering the correct wall thickness
- A53 grade B is the most common specification of welded pipe. It just means a pipe that has been produced by ERW process.
- Welded pipe does NOT have a weld seam inside or outside. Welded pipe is produced by electric resistance welding and the seam has been taken out during manufacturing process
- Pipe sizes smaller than 2″ are available in continuous weld pipe, also know as A53 grade A.
- Stainless Steel pipe is available in both welded and seamless configuration and in 316 and 304 material grade. Other stainless grades are also available but are less common
- Stainless steel pipe is also very common in schedule 10 which is a thin wall.
- Stainless steel pipe schedules are specified by “s” after the schedule number such as Sch 10s, Sch 40s, Sch 80s.
- Stainless steel pipe schedules do NOT always correlate with carbon steel pipe schedules. Check ansi pipe chart for proper determination of schedule number and wall thickness
- Pipes are mostly sold by SRL (single random length) or Double Random Length (DRL). SRL means pipe will be usually between 17 ft and 24 ft. DRL usually means pipe will be 37 ft to 44 ft.
- Majority of pipe sold have lacquer finish. If you want bare pipe, please specify at the time of ordering
- Epoxy coating of pipe can be done upon request.
- Most common pipe end type is plain end or beveled end. Threaded ends are also available upon request
Ex 13.2, 3 – Chapter 13 Class 9 Surface Areas and Volumes
Last updated at Aug. 12, 2020 by Teachoo
- Next: Ex 13.2, 4→
- Chapter 13 Class 9 Surface Areas and Volumes
- Serial order wise
Ex 13.2, 3 A metal pipe is 77 cm long. The inner diameter of a cross section is 4 cm, the outer diameter being 4.4 cm. Inner curved surface area, Inner radius of cylindrical pipe = r1 = ( )/2 = (4/2) cm = 2 cm Height (h) of cylindrical pipe = 77 cm Curved Surface Area of inner surface of pipe = 2 r1h = (2 22/7 2 77) cm2 = 968 cm2 Ex 13.2, 3 A metal pipe is 77 cm long. The inner diameter of a cross section is 4 cm, the outer diameter being 4.4 cm. (ii) Outer curved surface area, Outer radius of cylindrical pipe =r2 = ( )/2 = (4.4/2) cm = 2.2 cm Height of cylinder = h = 77 cm Curved Surface Area of outer surface of pipe = 2 r2h = (2 22/7 2.2 77) cm2 = (2 22 2.2 11) cm2 = 1064.8 cm2 Ex 13.2, 3 A metal pipe is 77 cm long. The inner diameter of a cross section is 4 cm, the outer diameter being 4.4 cm. (iii) Total surface area, r1 = 2 , r2 = 2.2 cm, h = 77 cm Total surface area = Curved Surface Area of inner cylinder + Curved Surface Area of outer cylinder + 2 Area of base Area of base = r22 r12 = 22/7 ((2.2)2 (2)2 ) = 22/7 (4.84 4) = 22/7 (0.84) = 2.74 cm2 Total surface area = Curved Surface Area of inner cylinder + Curved Surface Area of outer cylinder + 2 Area of base = 968 + 1064.8 + 2 2.74 = 2032.8 + 5.76 = 2038.08 cm2 Therefore, the total surface area of the cylindrical pipe is 2038.08 cm2Ex 13.2, 3 A metal pipe is 77 cm long. The inner diameter of a cross section is 4 cm, the outer diameter being 4.4 cm. Inner curved surface area, Inner radius of cylindrical pipe = r1 = ( )/2 = (4/2) cm = 2 cm Height (h) of cylindrical pipe = 77 cm Curved Surface Area ]]>