6 Conditions That Marijuana Can Mimic
Rod Brouhard is an emergency medical technician paramedic (EMT-P), journalist, educator, and advocate for emergency medical service providers and patients.
Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital.
Marijuana is touted as the safest of all recreational drugs. There is considerable debate about that, but the good news is that deaths from marijuana only are rarely reported. Marijuana used in conjunction with other drugs, however, is a much bigger problem. Even alcohol potentiates the effects of weed significantly. After hearing how mellow marijuana is supposed to be, many folks who try it for the first time are surprised by their reactions.
As drugs go, especially naturally occurring drugs, marijuana is one of the most complicated. Made from the cannabis plant, it contains more than 113 active ingredients, called cannabinoids. These cannabinoids all affect the body in some way, and not always in the same way. Those who are well versed in the different choices have the ability to choose the sort of high they want.
Those who are new to the scene, however, can be surprised by the reaction they feel. There are plenty of stories of folks trying weed for the first time—or more precisely, the first time since college—and discovering that the high isn’t exactly what they expected. A quick internet search will find a bevy of 911 calls from people who didn’t quite enjoy the high they were feeling.
More Harsh Than Mellow
Some people go to the hospital thinking they’ve had a medical emergency.
The various psychoactive substances in marijuana are likely to create all sorts of different reactions to its consumption and even the way the drug is consumed makes a difference.
Eating a marijuana brownie metabolizes the weed differently than smoking a joint, which means the same bud could have different effects when eaten than it does when smoked. It also takes longer to feel the effects after ingesting the drug than it does after smoking it, which often leads newcomers to eat too much, thinking they aren’t getting anywhere. When the weed starts kicking in, it comes on all at once.
The two most well-known cannabinoids in pot are tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Medical authorities aren’t entirely sure how each works exactly, but it’s generally believed that the paranoia and anxiety produced by THC are partly offset by the anti-anxiety properties of CBD. Some people are using CBD extract medicinally for things like seizure control and anxiety reduction with some success. Other folks go for the most extreme concentrations of THC they can find, which leads to a high that looks more like that of a stimulant than the sedative most people expect marijuana to be.
To meet the demand, modern marijuana farmers are very good at improving their yields. The same advances in agriculture that have increased food production per acre—and even per plant—around the world have also increased the concentration of THC in weed. THC in confiscated cannabis samples increased from 3.4% in 1993 to 8.8% in 2008. On top of that, there are other forms of marijuana besides the usual bud. Hash oil, sometimes called butane honey oil or BHO, is known for being extremely potent, up to 80% THC. The more THC in the product, the more anxiety, and stimulant-like reaction can be expected.
Not only is there great agricultural advances pushing the limits of farming efficiency, but there are also synthetic copies of marijuana. K2 or Spice are examples of synthetic cannabinoid compounds that mimic the effects of natural weed and act on the same cannabinoid receptors in the body. It sounds great to say we can make weed instead of growing it, but the reality is that you really don’t know what you’re getting. Beyond the fact that weed can mimic certain medical conditions, synthetic cannabinoids might have other drugs either as part of their chemical make-up or can be laced with other drugs to enhance their effects.
Can Weed Feel Like a Heart Attack?
With well over a hundred more cannabinoids in the marijuana compound besides THC and CBD, there’s a whole lot we don’t know about how weed affects the body. Because of the fact that it gets you high, scientists have focused on the effects of marijuana on the brain and central nervous system. But, evidence shows that weed also affects the heart.
There are several documented cases of marijuana causing heart rhythm disturbances and even one death through a fatal arrhythmia. It’s very possible these people could have had pre-existing cardiac conditions, even if they didn’t know it, but the weed certainly affected the way their hearts were functioning while they were high. In at least one case of atrial fibrillation, the effect persisted after the high wore off.
With the cardiac effects of marijuana largely still not well understood, the fact that some folks may feel as if they are having a heart attack after consuming weed is not to be ignored. Marijuana dulls pain; in fact, it’s one of the many benefits touted for medicinal use. So, even if the weed is affecting the heart in a negative way that could lead to chest pain when sober, people might not feel the pain. You can’t ignore feelings of distress, including palpitations or chest pressure, when taking marijuana. The fact is, it might not be mimicking a heart attack so much as causing one.
Weed slows down your mental processes. It’s one of the main parts of marijuana that users remember (well, if you can remember anything). It’s that slow, gentle, absentmindedness that is the butt of so many pot jokes.
Imagine a person with diabetes smoking a little weed and having someone visit. The slow, halting movements and difficulty finding words are exactly what you’d expect to see during a bout of low blood sugar. Just don’t reach for the pot brownies to help fix the problem.
Is All That Vomiting From Pot or Gastroenteritis?
Pot makes some folks vomit. It even has a name: cannabinoid hyperemesis. Typically associated more with chronic marijuana use, cannabinoid hyperemesis leads to severe, uncontrollable vomiting. Some people have discovered that hot showers can reduce nausea temporarily, but the only surefire way to completely stop the condition is to stop smoking weed.
Not a lot is known about cannabinoid hyperemesis. While it is known to affect chronic tokers, uncontrollable vomiting has been documented in other examples of folks who simply took a lot of marijuana. There is a debate about whether or not you can actually overdose on weed, but the medical community generally agrees there is such a thing as marijuana poisoning. Vomiting is one of the effects that gets mentioned often.
For folks who start vomiting after smoking marijuana, the presence of vomiting while high could be easily mistaken for some infection or gastroenteritis. It’s very important to be honest about the use of cannabis. Those around the patient are going to have a really hard time identifying the cause of nausea unless they are aware of the patient’s marijuana consumption. This is particularly bad news for the folks who started smoking weed to treat their nausea, common use by chemotherapy patients.
Besides vomiting, pot is also known for causing a fair amount of heartburn among those who use it the most. There are a few options that chronic users can take to try to calm their indigestion, but the only guaranteed cure is to stop smoking.
While most panic attacks are psychiatric in nature, weed can definitely push the panic button. It’s not unheard of to see patients hyperventilating and scared of nothing in particular when high. Unfortunately, like many other adverse reactions of marijuana, time is the only cure. There isn’t an antidote on the market that will reverse the effects of marijuana. Indeed, for those who are susceptible to the panicky feelings that weed might produce, abstinence is the only option.
THC’s anxiety-inducing properties are notorious. Even in the past, when the amount of THC in a joint was nowhere near as potent as today, some folks didn’t like the way weed made them feel as if the police were coming any minute. The anxiety felt by consuming a drug that was unequivocally illegal was probably worse than in today’s more tolerant environment. Whatever the barriers to marijuana use that have been removed, however, are probably offset by the potency of the product.
One step beyond panic is paranoia. It’s a fine line, but when weed takes you there, it might not bring you back. Psychosis that is induced by marijuana doesn’t always subside when the pot is all metabolized in some vulnerable individuals. In most cases of THC-induced psychosis, cessation of use is the eventual cure, but there are examples of marijuana being the trigger of longer-term psychotic symptoms.
This is one reason to definitely stay away from the highest concentrations of THC. Whether you choose to use or not, pushing the THC limit can be a dangerous game.Marijuana is a complicated drug with lots of different faces. We don't yet know everything that it can do or all of its dangers.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Home / Conditions / Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Updated on April 7, 2020. Medical content reviewed by Dr. Joseph Rosado, MD, M.B.A, Chief Medical Officer
If you suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), you are not alone. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, GERD affects about 20 percent of the population. GERD is not a comfortable condition to live with, and it can significantly reduce an individual’s quality of life. If untreated, GERD can lead to serious complications down the line.
Fortunately, there are many ways to treat GERD and relieve symptoms. Sometimes, diet changes and exercise are enough to treat GERD. However, when a patient frequently experiences severe GERD symptoms, they may need something to relieve pain. Medical marijuana may effectively treat GERD-related pain, nausea, and inflammation in some patients. This article explores GERD and the use of medical marijuana for treatment.
Why Consider Medical Marijuana for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?
Medical marijuana offers hope to individuals with GERD who do not want the side effects of conventional heartburn medication, but who also want fast relief. Marijuana is also known to reduce inflammation, which may help the body heal from the effects of GERD.
If you are interested in using medical marijuana for heartburn or GERD, keep reading. We will now look at reasons why cannabis may be an effective treatment for GERD.
1. The Endocannabinoid System Plays a Role in the Gastrointestinal Tract
A Temple University report, published in 2017, investigated the role of cannabinoids on esophageal function. Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the marijuana plant and the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). The human ECS regulates different functions throughout the body, including the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The ECS also enables humans to experience the effects of cannabis.
When an individual ingests cannabis, the cannabinoids from the plant attach to cannabinoid receptors in the ECS and activate them to produce different effects. For example, the ECS can initiate a feeling of hunger and pleasure. That is part of the reason some individuals who use cannabis experience an increased appetite. According to the report, the ECS fulfills the following roles within the upper GI tract:
- Reduces the secretion of stomach acid
- Can reduce inflammation and mucosal damage resulting from GERD
- Can affect esophageal relaxation
- Increases pain threshold
The report looks at several studies and how cannabinoids affect the GI tract and acid reflux. One study included in the paper found a decreased rate of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in healthy volunteers who took tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). TLESRs are the leading cause of GERD in most patients. THC also reduced acid reflux episodes. This review suggests further study of marijuana for acid reflux and how cannabis can target the ECS in the GI tract to create healing, pain-relieving effects.
2. Cannabis Inhibits Gastric Acid
According to research published in the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, several preclinical studies support marijuana’s protective effect on the stomach. For example, researchers have found cannabinoids decrease stress-induced ulcers in rats. This article concludes cannabis inhibits stomach acid secretion. Also, the activation of certain cannabinoids protects the lining of the stomach, suggesting cannabis may be useful in treating peptic ulcers and GERD.
3. Marijuana Decreases Stress
Medical marijuana can address factors that trigger or exacerbate GERD symptoms, such as stress and anxiety. When taken as recommended by a certified doctor, medical cannabis can make a patient feel less overwhelmed and worried. As a result, they may experience fewer stress-related ailments such as nausea and stomach pain.
Some studies show mental health impacts GI health. For example, studies of patients with gastric fistulas have shown anger increases stomach acidity. Likewise, certain stressful life factors and the onset of GERD are linked.
Although stress alone may not be enough to cause GERD, it can take a toll on the body and the digestive system. Medical marijuana can help patients relax and calm their minds. For instance, according to a recent study conducted by researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago and the University of Chicago, individuals who took a low dose of THC experienced lower stress levels after taking a psychosocial test compared to those who took a placebo. However, study participants who took a higher dose of THC found the test “challenging” or “threatening,” which supports the idea that correct marijuana dosage is critical in achieving the desired effects.
4. Cannabis Decreases the Need to Take Pain Medication
Doctors often recommend medical marijuana to treat pain, and it’s a safer alternative than many conventional pain medications for individuals who struggle with acid reflux. Patients who suffer from GERD may experience pain in their chest, stomach or throat. Rather than turning to pain medication such as aspirin, which can make GERD worse, patients might use medical marijuana instead.
According to the Mayo Clinic, certain medications can increase the severity of GERD, leading to greater irritation and inflammation in the lining of the esophagus. The following pain medications can aggravate GERD:
Marijuana can decrease pain, so GERD patients do not need to take pain medicine that irritates their stomach and esophagus. A Harvard Medical School review of several cannabinoid studies confirmed high-quality evidence to support the use of medical marijuana to treat chronic pain.
5. Marijuana Decreases Inflammation
GERD causes painful inflammation of the esophagus. According to researchers at the University of South Carolina School of Medicine, cannabinoids suppress an inflammatory response and weaken disease symptoms as a result. Considering marijuana’s anti-inflammatory properties, patients may want to explore their options regarding cannabis treatment and GERD.
GERD Symptoms Medical Marijuana Can Treat
Patients might use medical marijuana to treat the following GERD symptoms:
- Esophageal pain due to inflammation
- Depression and stress resulting from GERD pain or discomfort
- Chest pain
- Abdominal pain
- Difficulty sleeping due to GERD pain
Best Strains of Medical Marijuana to Use for GERD Treatment
Many different types of medical marijuana for gastroesophageal reflux disease can treat a range of symptoms, whether you want to relieve pain, reduce inflammation or alleviate nausea. Both THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in the cannabis plant have anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving qualities. The difference is, THC can make patients feel “high,” whereas CBD does not produce psychoactive effects.
The strain you choose depends on the experience you wish to have. Marijuana affects everyone differently, so it’s important to speak with a certified marijuana doctor to determine the best strain for you and your condition. Here are some suggestions.
- For pain: Afghan Kush is an Indica strain and a potent pain reliever. Granddaddy Purple is also powerful for pain relief. Both of these strains are strong and would be best to take at night. For daytime pain relief, consider White Widow or Blue Dream.
- For stress: If GERD makes you feel stressed, consider a Sativa-dominant strain like Sour Diesel, which helps with stress, anxiety, and pain. Royal Cookies is another option for an uplifting and relaxing effect.
- For nausea: To relieve nausea, consider Death Star for powerful stress and nausea relief, or White Fire OG, which produces less drowsiness than other strains but relieves nausea.
- For vomiting: If GERD causes vomiting, try Goo, Green Haze, Glass Slipper, Blueberry Nuken or Dynamite.
- For depression: To lift your mood and promote happy feelings, consider Jack Herer, Pineapple Express or Harlequin.
- For inflammation: To reduce inflammation that leads to pain, try Cookies Kush, Lemon G, Cannatonic or Afghan Kush.
When choosing a strain, consider how it might affect your GERD overall. For example, certain marijuana strains may stimulate your appetite. Keep in mind that GERD patients want to avoid overeating or eating before bed. Discuss these factors with your doctor or ask a dispensary for assistance.
Best Methods of Administration
There are several different ways to take marijuana medicine. GERD patients, in particular, should consider the following treatment methods.
- Smoking: Smoking medical marijuana provides the fastest relief, which may be best for individuals experiencing GERD pain. However, smoking can also irritate the throat or lungs, so patients should take this into account first.
- Vaping: Vaping, like smoking, also provides quick pain relief but does not expose users to the harsh effects of smoking. This method of ingestion may be ideal for patients who want heartburn to go away, but who do not want to irritate their throat.
- Tinctures: Tinctures allow patients to measure an exact dose. Patients can add marijuana tinctures to food or beverages, or take them sublingually for fast relief.
- Capsules: Capsules work slower than tinctures taken under the tongue, but they both provide the effects in more controlled doses. Capsules may be ideal for patients who do not feel comfortable smoking marijuana and who want to avoid taking too large of a dose at once.
Medical marijuana patients may also consume their medicine in the form of cannabis-infused food, such as cookies, brownies or candy. However, considering that sugary, fatty foods can aggravate GERD, patients may want to leave edibles out of their treatment plan.
Possible Side Effects of Medical Marijuana
Like most medications, marijuana may cause side effects. Speaking with a certified cannabis doctor can help you determine the appropriate THC or CBD levels for you and your condition, as well as the best method of administration. That way, you’ll reduce the risk of experiencing unpleasant side effects.
Some patients do not have any side effects, while others may experience one or more depending on the dose, their experience, and the cannabis strain. Marijuana can cause the following side effects:
- Dry mouth
- Red eyes
- Short-term memory loss
- Slower reaction time
- Increased heart rate
- Impaired balance
- Urinary retention
- Slurred speech
Search for a Medical Marijuana Doctor or Dispensary Today
GERD is challenging to live with. Medical marijuana may provide relief and reduce inflammation resulting from GERD, so you do not have to rely on antacids or prescription drugs to get you through the pain.
Speaking with a certified medical marijuana doctor can help you determine if marijuana is the best treatment for your acid reflux or GERD. At MarijuanaDoctors.com, we strive to make it easy to connect with qualified cannabis doctors and dispensaries. If you have questions about medical marijuana or want to start treatment, find a certified doctor or dispensary today.
What Is Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease?
GERD is the result of an irritated esophagus. Your esophagus is a tube that carries food to your stomach. When the muscle at the end of your esophagus does not properly close, acid from your stomach can rise into your esophagus and cause irritation and inflammation. When this happens, you may feel burning in your chest, mouth or throat, also known as heartburn. However, GERD does not always present itself in the form of heartburn. Sometimes GERD does not cause a burning feeling, but instead, may make it difficult to swallow.
What Is the Difference Between GERD and Heartburn?
It is common to experience gastroesophageal reflux or heartburn once in a while. However, if you have heartburn more than twice a week for a few weeks, it could mean you have GERD. In other words, GERD is a more long-lasting, severe form of gastroesophageal reflux. Untreated GERD can cause health problems over time.
What Are the Symptoms of GERD?
Most patients who suffer from GERD experience a burning sensation in their chest as a result of stomach acid.
- Burning in the abdomen
- Bad breath
- Chest pain
- Difficulty swallowing
- The taste of food or stomach acid in the back of the mouth
- Wearing away of teeth
- Respiratory issues
- Feeling like there is a lump in your throat
What Causes GERD?
Heartburn and GERD happen when the lower esophageal sphincter becomes weak or relaxes, allowing food or stomach acid to rise into the esophagus. Several different factors may cause the esophageal muscle to relax or weaken, such as:
- Pressure on the abdomen from excess weight or pregnancy
- Certain medications such as painkillers or antidepressants
- Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
- A hiatal hernia
- A connective tissue disorder
Factors that might trigger GERD symptoms include:
- Smoking tobacco
- Eating a large meal
- Eating before bed
- Eating fatty or spicy foods, or chocolate
- Drinking alcohol or caffeine
- Taking aspirin or other types of medication
- Experiencing stress or anxiety
What Are the Current Treatments Available for GERD?
Before your doctor recommends prescription medication or surgery, it’s like they will first suggest modifying your lifestyle to treat GERD. They may ask you to do one or more of the following:
- Change diet
- Avoid overeating
- Lose weight if necessary
- Avoid eating two to three hours before bed
- Quit smoking tobacco
- Avoid secondhand smoke
- Wear loose-fitting clothing around the abdomen
- Avoid lying down or reclining three hours after eating
- Take antacids
- Take over-the-counter medication
- Chew food slowly and thoroughly
If lifestyle changes do not provide symptom relief within a few weeks, your doctor may prescribe medications such as prescription-strength Pepcid or Zantac. If your GERD is severe or if you do not wish to take medicine, your doctor may recommend surgery to reduce the amount of acid that enters your esophagus.
What Are the Side Effects of Available Treatments?
GERD medications may produce undesirable side effects many patients would rather avoid.
For example, antacids may cause:
- Kidney problems
- Calcium loss and weak bones
It is also worth noting that antacids do not heal the stomach or esophagus. They merely provide temporary symptom relief. Over-the-counter and prescription GERD medications may cause the following side effects:
- Vitamin B12 deficiency
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), such as Prilosec and Prevacid, decrease the amount of acid your stomach produces. Studies show people who take PPIs for extended amounts of time or in high doses are at increased risk of fracturing their hip, wrist or spine. Also, people need to take PPIs on an empty stomach for them to work, which may not be convenient for many patients.
What Are the Complications of GERD?
If people who have GERD do not seek treatment, a constantly irritated esophagus can lead to serious issues, such as the following.
- Esophagitis: Esophagitis is chronic inflammation of the esophagus. Over time, an inflamed esophagus increases the risk of developing precancerous conditions in the esophagus.
- Esophageal stricture: Esophageal stricture is a narrowing of the esophagus that can lead to difficulty swallowing.
- Respiratory issues: Some patients with GERD may breathe stomach acid into their lungs. It can lead to a sore throat, asthma, chest congestion, coughing, hoarseness, laryngitis, pneumonia or wheezing.
- Barrett’s esophagus: A small percentage of individuals with GERD may develop Barrett’s esophagus, which increases the risk of developing esophageal cancer.